Hypothesis for Django users¶
Hypothesis offers a number of features specific for Django testing, available
hypothesis[django] extra. This is tested
against each supported series with mainstream or extended support -
if you’re still getting security patches, you can test with Hypothesis.
Using it is quite straightforward: All you need to do is subclass
and you can use
@given as normal,
and the transactions will be per example
rather than per test function as they would be if you used
@given with a normal
django test suite (this is important because your test function will be called
multiple times and you don’t want them to interfere with each other). Test cases
on these classes that do not use
@given will be run as normal.
We recommend avoiding
unless you really have to run each test case in a database transaction.
Because Hypothesis runs this in a loop, the performance problems it normally has
are significantly exacerbated and your tests will be really slow.
If you are using
you may need to use
to avoid errors due to slow example generation.
Having set up a test class, you can now pass
a strategy for Django models:
Return a strategy for examples of
Hypothesis creates saved models. This will run inside your testing transaction when using the test runner, but if you use the dev console this will leave debris in your database.
modelmust be an subclass of
Model. Strategies for fields may be passed as keyword arguments, for example
Hypothesis can often infer a strategy based the field type and validators - for best results, make sure your validators are derived from Django’s and therefore have the known types and attributes. Passing a keyword argument skips inference for that field; pass a strategy or pass
hypothesis.extra.django.models.default_valueto skip inference for that field.
Foreign keys are not automatically derived. If they’re nullable they will default to always being null, otherwise you always have to specify them. For example, examples of a Shop type with a foreign key to Company could be generated with:
shop_strategy = models(Shop, company=models(Company))
For example, using the trivial django project we have for testing:
>>> from hypothesis.extra.django.models import models >>> from toystore.models import Customer >>> c = models(Customer).example() >>> c <Customer: Customer object> >>> c.email 'email@example.com' >>> c.name '\U00109d3d\U000e07be\U000165f8\U0003fabf\U000c12cd\U000f1910\U00059f12\U000519b0\U0003fabf\U000f1910\U000423fb\U000423fb\U00059f12\U000e07be\U000c12cd\U000e07be\U000519b0\U000165f8\U0003fabf\U0007bc31' >>> c.age -873375803
Hypothesis has just created this with whatever the relevant type of data is.
Obviously the customer’s age is implausible, which is only possible because
we have not used (eg)
to set the valid range for this field (or used a
PositiveSmallIntegerField, which would only
need a maximum value validator).
If you do have validators attached, Hypothesis will only generate examples
that pass validation. Sometimes that will mean that we fail a
HealthCheck because of the filtering, so let’s explicitly
pass a strategy to skip validation at the strategy level:
Inference from validators will be much more powerful when issue #1116 is implemented, but there will always be some edge cases that require you to pass an explicit strategy.
>>> from hypothesis.strategies import integers >>> c = models(Customer, age=integers(min_value=0, max_value=120)).example() >>> c <Customer: Customer object> >>> c.age 5
Tips and tricks¶
Custom field types¶
If you have a custom Django field type you can register it with Hypothesis’s model deriving functionality by registering a default strategy for it:
>>> from toystore.models import CustomishField, Customish >>> models(Customish).example() hypothesis.errors.InvalidArgument: Missing arguments for mandatory field customish for model Customish >>> from hypothesis.extra.django.models import add_default_field_mapping >>> from hypothesis.strategies import just >>> add_default_field_mapping(CustomishField, just("hi")) >>> x = models(Customish).example() >>> x.customish 'hi'
Note that this mapping is on exact type. Subtypes will not inherit it.
Generating child models¶
For the moment there’s no explicit support in hypothesis-django for generating dependent models. i.e. a Company model will generate no Shops. However if you want to generate some dependent models as well, you can emulate this by using the flatmap function as follows:
from hypothesis.strategies import lists, just def generate_with_shops(company): return lists(models(Shop, company=just(company))).map(lambda _: company) company_with_shops_strategy = models(Company).flatmap(generate_with_shops)
Lets unpack what this is doing:
The way flatmap works is that we draw a value from the original strategy, then
apply a function to it which gives us a new strategy. We then draw a value from
that strategy. So in this case we’re first drawing a company, and then we’re
drawing a list of shops belonging to that company: The just strategy is a
strategy such that drawing it always produces the individual value, so
models(Shop, company=just(company)) is a strategy that generates a Shop belonging
to the original company.
So the following code would give us a list of shops all belonging to the same company:
models(Company).flatmap(lambda c: lists(models(Shop, company=just(c))))
The only difference from this and the above is that we want the company, not the shops. This is where the inner map comes in. We build the list of shops and then throw it away, instead returning the company we started for. This works because the models that Hypothesis generates are saved in the database, so we’re essentially running the inner strategy purely for the side effect of creating those children in the database.
Using default field values¶
Hypothesis ignores field defaults and always tries to generate values, even if
it doesn’t know how to. You can tell it to use the default value for a field
instead of generating one by passing
>>> from toystore.models import DefaultCustomish >>> models(DefaultCustomish).example() hypothesis.errors.InvalidArgument: Missing arguments for mandatory field customish for model DefaultCustomish >>> from hypothesis.extra.django.models import default_value >>> x = models(DefaultCustomish, customish=default_value).example() >>> x.customish 'b'
Generating primary key values¶
If your model includes a custom primary key that you want to generate using a strategy (rather than a default auto-increment primary key) then Hypothesis has to deal with the possibility of a duplicate primary key.
If a model strategy generates a value for the primary key field,
Hypothesis will create the model instance with
overwriting any existing instance in the database for this test case
with the same primary key.